• Users Online: 169
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-71

The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study


1 Nursing Tutor, Uttaranchal PG College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India
2 Assistant Professor, State College of Nursing, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India
3 Nursing Superintendent, Indian Railway Health Services, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission01-Jan-2021
Date of Decision12-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance14-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication11-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Shatrughan Pareek
Nursing Superintendent, NWR Divisional Hospital, Indian Railway Health Services, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334005
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_1_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background and Objective: Proper care of the newborn babies form the foundation of the subsequent life not only in terms of longevity or survival but also in terms of qualitative outcome without any physical and mental disabilities. A study was done to evaluate the knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Methodology: A nonexperimental descriptive research approach was applied for the study. The patients were 155 primipara mothers, selected by nonprobability purposive sampling technique. Sociodemographic proforma, self-structured questionnaire, and practice checklist were used to collect data regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers.
Results: The study communicated that out of 155 samples that mostly (76.1%) had average knowledge level. Moreover, practices of the mothers illustrated that the majority of participants (87.09%) hadpoor practice, whereas only 12.90% hadgood practice. Furthermore, a significant moderate positive correlation (P = 0.0001) was highlighted between knowledge scores and practices scores regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers. In addition, Chi-square value showed that no association found between knowledge score when scored a significant association was reported between knowledge score of primipara mothers with their age and education. Furthermore, practice scores of primipara mothers were significantly associated with the religion.
Conclusion: Findings emphasis the need of educational/teaching programs and awareness campaigns, which in turn may enhance the overall knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care. These initiatives may be significant in declining neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Knowledge, neonatal care, practice, primipara mothers


How to cite this article:
Mall A, Mohanta B, Pareek S. The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study. MRIMS J Health Sci 2021;9:67-71

How to cite this URL:
Mall A, Mohanta B, Pareek S. The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study. MRIMS J Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 17];9:67-71. Available from: http://www.mrimsjournal.com/text.asp?2021/9/2/67/318150




  Introduction Top


Children are our future and our most precious resources. Health status of the future children hangs on the nourishing practices acquired by the family.[1] The new born babies require vital newborn care to decline the sickness and enhance their growth and development. Early breastfeeding and closeness to the mother minimize the danger of hypothermia, as well as hypoglycemia.[2] Nearly half of all infant deaths occur during the first 28 days of life. In addition, 50% of this mortality takes place in the first week due to infections, prematurity, neonatal tetanus, and birth asphyxia which can be averted by meticulous care of the newborn.[3] Exclusive breastfeeding is important for the newborn. Poor practices toward exclusive breastfeeding are a global concern. The WHO projected that nearly 0.22 million children could be saved each year with exclusive breastfeeding.[4] Hygiene at delivery sites reduces the danger of infection for the gravid mother and newborn, mainly neonatal sepsis and tetanus. To subside the sickness, mothers, families, and healthcare personnel have to keep away hazardous conventional practices.[2] The WHO estimates that in India neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births is 25.4. Ignorance of child care is the contributing component to infant mortality.[5] Various times a mother understood the skill of child care by massive cost through the loss of one or two infants. Lack of breastfeeding and defective feeding practices are the factors associated with more infant death in India. Nearly 15.4% of the babies in India are born in house and are at more risk of developing infection compare to babies born in hospital settings.[6],[7],[8] Because of the poor hygienic practices of cutting the umbilical cord, inadequate observation about bleeding and the cord may be potential for neonatal complications such as neonatal tetanus and neonatal septicemia. Poorly treated neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening condition therefore its early diagnosis and treatment is essential.[9] Neonatal care is unavailable for neonates mostly in developing nations due to costly hospital care, so there is a need for home-based delivery and neonatal care. The neonatal care needs more specific attention due to home deliveries in unhygienic condition, ignorance, poor economic conditions, and inadequate educational status among rural women.[10] The WHO's report highlighted that integrated approaches such as skilled feeding practice, immunization, enhanced hygiene, and the healthy surroundings of children will be effective in reducing the child mortality rates.[3] Hence, researchers felt the need to assess the knowledge and practices of primipara mothers regarding newborn care.


  Methodology Top


The study was led with the aim to evaluate the knowledge and practice of primipara mothers regarding neonatal care. The investigator has employed the quantitative research approach. The descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge and practice of neonatal care among primipara mothers from the postnatal ward of the Government Doon female hospital, Dehradun. The duration of study was from March 2018 to June 2018. Sample size was calculated on the basis of previous studies. Initially, a total of 180 patients were enrolled for the study and response rate was 155 (86.11%). The population of the study consisted of 155 primipara mothers. The participants recruited in the study were >18 years, who had normal vaginal delivery and resided in Dehradun. The participants were selected by nonrandomized purposive sampling technique. In the present study, the researcher used three different tools including demographic pro forma to collect the baseline data, self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge, and practice questionnaire to assess practice of neonatal care among primipara mothers. In the knowledge and practice questionnaires, each correct response was given one mark and incorrect response was given zero mark. Reliability and validity of the tool were established before data collection. The reliability of the structured knowledge questionnaire and practice were assessed using spilt-half method and it was found reliable (r = 0.77 and 0.88, respectively). The validation of the tools was done by eight experts from Medical and nursing field. Ethical permission was taken from the ethical committee and well-informed written consent was obtained from the patients. Anonymity and confidentiality of the patients were maintained while carrying out the study.

Statically analysis

The frequency and percentage distribution were assessed by differential statistics. Pearson Correlation coefficient was applied to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and practices of the mothers. A Chi-square test was done to determine factors associated with knowledge and practices of the mothers. All the analysis was done by SPSS Version 20.0.IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA.


  Results Top


In the present study, [Table 1] reveals that the majority of mothers 103 (66.4%) were in the age group of 18–23 years followed by 46 (29.7%) were in the age group of 24–29 years. Regarding education, most patients 57 (36.8%) were having primary education while around one-fourth were having no formal education. For religion variables, the majority 98 (63.2%) of the study participants were Hindu. In addition, most of the participants 124 (80%) were homemakers; whreas 22 (14.2%) were daily wages workers and only 9 (5.8%) were private employees. Regarding residential areas, maximum of the study participants 86 (55.5%) were from urban areas and 69 (44.5%) were living in rural areas. Regarding family type, most of the study participants 84 (54.2%) belong to a joint family. For previous knowledge regarding neonatal care, the majority of mothers 78 (50.3%) hadknowledge regarding neonatal care, whereas 77 (49.7%) were not having knowledge regarding neonatal care. As per [Table 2], most of participants (76.1%) hadaverage knowledge level, whereas one-fifth having good level of knowledge and only 3.9% having poor level of knowledge. Regarding practices, the majority of mothers (87.09%) hadpoor practice, and only 12.90% having good practice regarding neonatal care [Graph 1]. Furthermore, significant correlation (r = 0.311) between knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care was reported among primipara mothers. [Table 3] highlights that there was a significant association between practice and occupation of mothers. However, a significant association was found between the knowledge scores of primipara mothers with their residential area and education status [Table 4].
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of sociodemographic characteristics of the primipara mothers (n=155)

Click here to view
Table 2: Determining the knowledge and practice level regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)

Click here to view
Table 3: Association among knowledge scores and selected demographic variables regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)

Click here to view
Table 4: Association among practice scores and selected demographic variables regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)

Click here to view




  Discussion Top


In India, the infant death rate is still higher in contrast to developed nations. Around 10 lacs newborns decease each year due to infection.[3] Many research studies have been conducted in our country among the different populations to estimate their existing knowledge and practices about neonatal care. To the best of our knowledge, this correlation study is the pioneer of its type in India. Therefore, the research was intended to assess knowledge and practices of primipara mothers. According to [Table 2], most of participants (76.1%) hadaverage knowledge level followed by one-fifth having good knowledge. The above findings were supported by Jisa et al.[11] The investigators highlighted that 76.66% having moderate knowledge while 23.33% having adequate knowledge. Memon et al.[12] described that the most of participants (64.6%) had moderate and 14.2% had adequate knowledge on home-based neonatal care. Misgna et al. (2016).[13] conducted a study on essential newborn care among mothers in Ethiopia. The researchers revealed that the majority of participants (80.4%) had good knowledge regarding the care. Furthermore, jiji et al.[14] communicated that 65% of postnatal mothers had moderate knowledge. These study findings were consistent with the present study. The present study illustrated that only 12.9% of mothers have good practices toward neonatal care. The present study findings were supported by Roy et al.[15] conducted a study regarding the practices of newborn care among mothersin Pune. The study communicated that only 11% of mothers have good practices toward newborn care. Berhea et al.[16] highlighted that a considerable number of the mothers had poor knowledge and practice towards newborn care in Mekelle City. The outcome of the present research was identical to the study. In addition, the present study highlighted that there was a moderate significant positive correlation (r = 0.311) between knowledge and practice toward neonatal care. The similar findings were reported by Jiji et al.[14] and Priyanka[17] that knowledge and practice had significant positive correlation (P < 0.001 level) toward newborn care among the mothers. Furthermore, the recent study revealed that there was a significant association between practice and occupation of the subjects. However, significant association existed between knowledge of primipara mothers with their residential area and education status. In this context, Memon et al.[12] also revealed that education had a significant impact on the knowledge status of mothers. The demographic variables like i.e., age, education, religion, and previous knowledge of mothers were not significantly associated with knowledge scores regarding neonatal care of the mothers. In addition, the occupation of the mothers was significantly associated (P = 0.03*) with practice scores while other selected variables were not significantly associated with practices.

Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the existing knowledge and practices of the mothers toward neonatal care. The findings can be utilized for the various health and awareness programs.


  Conclusion Top


The study revealed that the mothers have inadequate knowledge and limited practices regarding neonatal care. Moreover, the research findings highlighted the need of educational interventions and awareness campaigns to enhance the overall knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers. The knowledge scores of primipara mothers were significantly associated with their residential area and education status.

The government has to encourage the mothers for quality neonatal care. These kinds of programs can play a significant role in enhancing the knowledge and practices of the mothers. Furthermore, this initiative may be effective in declining neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Limitation

The present study was carried out at a single center with limited sample size and it was focused on knowledge and practice. No attempt made to identify attitude toward newborn care.

Acknowledgment

Researchers would like to acknowledge ethical committee, Principal, Govt College of Nursing and all the participants for their support in the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Self funded.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Bansal P, James MM. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding essential newborn care in a selected health centre, Badarpur in Delhi. Int J Nurs Midwife Res 2016;3:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
NRHM, Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karykaram. Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation Programme Training Manual; 2019. p. 99. Available from: http://www.nihfw.org/pdf/NCHRC-Publications/NavjaatShishuTrgMan.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 02].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Park K. Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 18th ed. India: Bhanot Publication; 2005. p. 202-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Pareek S. Exclusive breastfeeding in India: An ultimate need of infants. Nurs Pract Today 2019;6:416-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sankar MJ, Neogi SB, Sharma J, Chauhan M, Srivastava R, Prabhakar PK, et al. State of newborn health in India. J Perinatol 2016;36:S3-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Phukan D, Ranjan M, Dwivedi LK. Impact of timing of breastfeeding initiation on neonatal mortality in India. Int Breastfeed J 2018;13:27.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Swain PK, Singh P, Priyadarshini S. Determinants of home deliveries – Findings from India DLHS 4 analysis. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:4723-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
  [Full text]  
8.
Kurth E, Krähenbühl K, Eicher M, Rodmann S, Fölmli L, Conzelmann C, et al. Safe start at home: What parents of newborns need after early discharge from hospital – A focus group study. BMC Health Serv Res 2016;16:82.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Marchant RH, Sharif M. Prevention of neonatal sepsis. J Obstet Gynecol India 2004;55:313-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kumar A, Srivastava M, Ahmad S, Upadhyay OP. Study to assess the knowledge and practices of newborn care among postnatal mothers in tertiary care hospital of Varanasi. Int J Health Sci Res 2015;5:38-44.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Jisa KJ, Christy M, Lipsy PV, Micheal M, Ulahannan S, Sini PS, et al. Knowledge regarding newborn care among primigravida mothers in selected hospital of Thrissur. Int J Recent Sci Res 2017;8:17535-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Memon J, Holakouie-Naieni K, Majdzadeh R, Yekaninejad MS, Garmaroudi G, Raza O, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice among mothers about newborn care in Sindh, Pakistan. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019;19:329.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Misgna HG, Gebru HB, Birhanu MM. Knowledge, practice and associated factors of essential newborn care at home among mothers in Gulomekada District, Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia, 2014. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16:144.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Jiji DB, Wankhede RS, Benjamin BA. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of postnatal mothers regarding newborn care in selected maternity centres in Madurai. Int J Allied Med Sci Clin Res 2014;2:119-24.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Roy MA, Suji MM, Jabade MV. A study to assess the knowledge and practice of newborn care among mothers attending paediatric inpatient departments of selected hospitals in Pune. Int J Curr Res 2017;9:62721.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Berhea TA, Belachew AB, Abreha GF. Knowledge and practice of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia: A population-based survey. PLoS One 2018;13:e0202542.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Priyanka T. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding care of newborn among postnatal mothers in selected hospital of Moga, Punjab. Adv Pract Nurs J 2017;2:27.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed546    
    Printed18    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded60    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]