|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 67-71
The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study
Anjali Mall1, Bijaya Mohanta2, Shatrughan Pareek3
1 Nursing Tutor, Uttaranchal PG College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India
2 Assistant Professor, State College of Nursing, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India
3 Nursing Superintendent, Indian Railway Health Services, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Submission||01-Jan-2021|
|Date of Decision||12-Feb-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||14-Mar-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Jun-2021|
Mr. Shatrughan Pareek
Nursing Superintendent, NWR Divisional Hospital, Indian Railway Health Services, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334005
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and Objective: Proper care of the newborn babies form the foundation of the subsequent life not only in terms of longevity or survival but also in terms of qualitative outcome without any physical and mental disabilities. A study was done to evaluate the knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Methodology: A nonexperimental descriptive research approach was applied for the study. The patients were 155 primipara mothers, selected by nonprobability purposive sampling technique. Sociodemographic proforma, self-structured questionnaire, and practice checklist were used to collect data regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers.
Results: The study communicated that out of 155 samples that mostly (76.1%) had average knowledge level. Moreover, practices of the mothers illustrated that the majority of participants (87.09%) hadpoor practice, whereas only 12.90% hadgood practice. Furthermore, a significant moderate positive correlation (P = 0.0001) was highlighted between knowledge scores and practices scores regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers. In addition, Chi-square value showed that no association found between knowledge score when scored a significant association was reported between knowledge score of primipara mothers with their age and education. Furthermore, practice scores of primipara mothers were significantly associated with the religion.
Conclusion: Findings emphasis the need of educational/teaching programs and awareness campaigns, which in turn may enhance the overall knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care. These initiatives may be significant in declining neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Knowledge, neonatal care, practice, primipara mothers
|How to cite this article:|
Mall A, Mohanta B, Pareek S. The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study. MRIMS J Health Sci 2021;9:67-71
|How to cite this URL:|
Mall A, Mohanta B, Pareek S. The knowledge and practices toward neonatal care among primipara mothers in Dehradun, Uttarakhand: A correlation study. MRIMS J Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 17];9:67-71. Available from: http://www.mrimsjournal.com/text.asp?2021/9/2/67/318150
| Introduction|| |
Children are our future and our most precious resources. Health status of the future children hangs on the nourishing practices acquired by the family. The new born babies require vital newborn care to decline the sickness and enhance their growth and development. Early breastfeeding and closeness to the mother minimize the danger of hypothermia, as well as hypoglycemia. Nearly half of all infant deaths occur during the first 28 days of life. In addition, 50% of this mortality takes place in the first week due to infections, prematurity, neonatal tetanus, and birth asphyxia which can be averted by meticulous care of the newborn. Exclusive breastfeeding is important for the newborn. Poor practices toward exclusive breastfeeding are a global concern. The WHO projected that nearly 0.22 million children could be saved each year with exclusive breastfeeding. Hygiene at delivery sites reduces the danger of infection for the gravid mother and newborn, mainly neonatal sepsis and tetanus. To subside the sickness, mothers, families, and healthcare personnel have to keep away hazardous conventional practices. The WHO estimates that in India neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births is 25.4. Ignorance of child care is the contributing component to infant mortality. Various times a mother understood the skill of child care by massive cost through the loss of one or two infants. Lack of breastfeeding and defective feeding practices are the factors associated with more infant death in India. Nearly 15.4% of the babies in India are born in house and are at more risk of developing infection compare to babies born in hospital settings.,, Because of the poor hygienic practices of cutting the umbilical cord, inadequate observation about bleeding and the cord may be potential for neonatal complications such as neonatal tetanus and neonatal septicemia. Poorly treated neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening condition therefore its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Neonatal care is unavailable for neonates mostly in developing nations due to costly hospital care, so there is a need for home-based delivery and neonatal care. The neonatal care needs more specific attention due to home deliveries in unhygienic condition, ignorance, poor economic conditions, and inadequate educational status among rural women. The WHO's report highlighted that integrated approaches such as skilled feeding practice, immunization, enhanced hygiene, and the healthy surroundings of children will be effective in reducing the child mortality rates. Hence, researchers felt the need to assess the knowledge and practices of primipara mothers regarding newborn care.
| Methodology|| |
The study was led with the aim to evaluate the knowledge and practice of primipara mothers regarding neonatal care. The investigator has employed the quantitative research approach. The descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge and practice of neonatal care among primipara mothers from the postnatal ward of the Government Doon female hospital, Dehradun. The duration of study was from March 2018 to June 2018. Sample size was calculated on the basis of previous studies. Initially, a total of 180 patients were enrolled for the study and response rate was 155 (86.11%). The population of the study consisted of 155 primipara mothers. The participants recruited in the study were >18 years, who had normal vaginal delivery and resided in Dehradun. The participants were selected by nonrandomized purposive sampling technique. In the present study, the researcher used three different tools including demographic pro forma to collect the baseline data, self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge, and practice questionnaire to assess practice of neonatal care among primipara mothers. In the knowledge and practice questionnaires, each correct response was given one mark and incorrect response was given zero mark. Reliability and validity of the tool were established before data collection. The reliability of the structured knowledge questionnaire and practice were assessed using spilt-half method and it was found reliable (r = 0.77 and 0.88, respectively). The validation of the tools was done by eight experts from Medical and nursing field. Ethical permission was taken from the ethical committee and well-informed written consent was obtained from the patients. Anonymity and confidentiality of the patients were maintained while carrying out the study.
The frequency and percentage distribution were assessed by differential statistics. Pearson Correlation coefficient was applied to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and practices of the mothers. A Chi-square test was done to determine factors associated with knowledge and practices of the mothers. All the analysis was done by SPSS Version 20.0.IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA.
| Results|| |
In the present study, [Table 1] reveals that the majority of mothers 103 (66.4%) were in the age group of 18–23 years followed by 46 (29.7%) were in the age group of 24–29 years. Regarding education, most patients 57 (36.8%) were having primary education while around one-fourth were having no formal education. For religion variables, the majority 98 (63.2%) of the study participants were Hindu. In addition, most of the participants 124 (80%) were homemakers; whreas 22 (14.2%) were daily wages workers and only 9 (5.8%) were private employees. Regarding residential areas, maximum of the study participants 86 (55.5%) were from urban areas and 69 (44.5%) were living in rural areas. Regarding family type, most of the study participants 84 (54.2%) belong to a joint family. For previous knowledge regarding neonatal care, the majority of mothers 78 (50.3%) hadknowledge regarding neonatal care, whereas 77 (49.7%) were not having knowledge regarding neonatal care. As per [Table 2], most of participants (76.1%) hadaverage knowledge level, whereas one-fifth having good level of knowledge and only 3.9% having poor level of knowledge. Regarding practices, the majority of mothers (87.09%) hadpoor practice, and only 12.90% having good practice regarding neonatal care [Graph 1]. Furthermore, significant correlation (r = 0.311) between knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care was reported among primipara mothers. [Table 3] highlights that there was a significant association between practice and occupation of mothers. However, a significant association was found between the knowledge scores of primipara mothers with their residential area and education status [Table 4].
|Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of sociodemographic characteristics of the primipara mothers (n=155)|
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|Table 2: Determining the knowledge and practice level regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)|
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|Table 3: Association among knowledge scores and selected demographic variables regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)|
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|Table 4: Association among practice scores and selected demographic variables regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers (n=155)|
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| Discussion|| |
In India, the infant death rate is still higher in contrast to developed nations. Around 10 lacs newborns decease each year due to infection. Many research studies have been conducted in our country among the different populations to estimate their existing knowledge and practices about neonatal care. To the best of our knowledge, this correlation study is the pioneer of its type in India. Therefore, the research was intended to assess knowledge and practices of primipara mothers. According to [Table 2], most of participants (76.1%) hadaverage knowledge level followed by one-fifth having good knowledge. The above findings were supported by Jisa et al. The investigators highlighted that 76.66% having moderate knowledge while 23.33% having adequate knowledge. Memon et al. described that the most of participants (64.6%) had moderate and 14.2% had adequate knowledge on home-based neonatal care. Misgna et al. (2016). conducted a study on essential newborn care among mothers in Ethiopia. The researchers revealed that the majority of participants (80.4%) had good knowledge regarding the care. Furthermore, jiji et al. communicated that 65% of postnatal mothers had moderate knowledge. These study findings were consistent with the present study. The present study illustrated that only 12.9% of mothers have good practices toward neonatal care. The present study findings were supported by Roy et al. conducted a study regarding the practices of newborn care among mothersin Pune. The study communicated that only 11% of mothers have good practices toward newborn care. Berhea et al. highlighted that a considerable number of the mothers had poor knowledge and practice towards newborn care in Mekelle City. The outcome of the present research was identical to the study. In addition, the present study highlighted that there was a moderate significant positive correlation (r = 0.311) between knowledge and practice toward neonatal care. The similar findings were reported by Jiji et al. and Priyanka that knowledge and practice had significant positive correlation (P < 0.001 level) toward newborn care among the mothers. Furthermore, the recent study revealed that there was a significant association between practice and occupation of the subjects. However, significant association existed between knowledge of primipara mothers with their residential area and education status. In this context, Memon et al. also revealed that education had a significant impact on the knowledge status of mothers. The demographic variables like i.e., age, education, religion, and previous knowledge of mothers were not significantly associated with knowledge scores regarding neonatal care of the mothers. In addition, the occupation of the mothers was significantly associated (P = 0.03*) with practice scores while other selected variables were not significantly associated with practices.
Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the existing knowledge and practices of the mothers toward neonatal care. The findings can be utilized for the various health and awareness programs.
| Conclusion|| |
The study revealed that the mothers have inadequate knowledge and limited practices regarding neonatal care. Moreover, the research findings highlighted the need of educational interventions and awareness campaigns to enhance the overall knowledge and practice regarding neonatal care among primipara mothers. The knowledge scores of primipara mothers were significantly associated with their residential area and education status.
The government has to encourage the mothers for quality neonatal care. These kinds of programs can play a significant role in enhancing the knowledge and practices of the mothers. Furthermore, this initiative may be effective in declining neonatal morbidity and mortality.
The present study was carried out at a single center with limited sample size and it was focused on knowledge and practice. No attempt made to identify attitude toward newborn care.
Researchers would like to acknowledge ethical committee, Principal, Govt College of Nursing and all the participants for their support in the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]