MRIMS Journal of Health Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 25--29

Prevalence and risk factors of tobacco use among urban high school boys in Turkapally, Telangana


Shaik Riyaz Ameer 
 Primary Health Care Center, Wadi al-Tayeen, Ibra, Oman

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shaik Riyaz Ameer
Primary Health Care Center, Wadi al-Tayeen, Ibra
Oman

Abstract

Background: Studies on the prevalence and risk factors among school-going children are important. They provide data on the current trends of tobacco use among this vulnerable group. They also help to identify the risk factors and provide valuable data in policy planning. The prevention of tobacco use in this population is of paramount importance to prevent future consequences. Objective: The objective of this study is to study the prevalence and risk factors tobacco use among urban high school boys. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 532 government and private high school boys selected by the random sampling method. Data were collected by interview method using predesigned semistructured questionnaire. Results: Majority (35.5%) were of 12 years of age. Among smoke forms of tobacco products, most commonly known was bidi and cigarette by 97.2% of boys. The prevalence of tobacco use among boys of high school children in the present study was 7.7%. 73.1% were aware about the hazards of tobacco use. The prevalence of tobacco use was significantly more in children studying in government schools compared to private schools (P < 0.05). As the education class increased from VIII to X, the prevalence of tobacco use increased significantly (P < 0.05). It was significantly more in joint family as compared to children belonging to nuclear family. Father's education and social class were not found to be significant risk factors for tobacco use. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use was high in the present study among high school children. It was associated with increasing age, children from government schools and children from joint family.



How to cite this article:
Ameer SR. Prevalence and risk factors of tobacco use among urban high school boys in Turkapally, Telangana.MRIMS J Health Sci 2022;10:25-29


How to cite this URL:
Ameer SR. Prevalence and risk factors of tobacco use among urban high school boys in Turkapally, Telangana. MRIMS J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 16 ];10:25-29
Available from: http://www.mrimsjournal.com/text.asp?2022/10/2/25/344432


Full Text



 Introduction



Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in the several regions of the world. According to the estimates made by the World Health Organization, currently about 5 million people die prematurely every year in the world due to the use of tobacco, mostly cigarette smoking. By 2030, it would double to 10 million deaths every year, with about 7 million of the deaths taking place in developing countries. India will have the fastest rate of rise in deaths attributable to tobacco and many of these will occur in the productive years of adult life, as a consequence of an addiction acquired in youth.[1]

The global literature is only of limited help in assessing the problem of tobacco use in India since the dominant and the most researched form of tobacco use globally is cigarette smoking. In India, cigarette smoking comprises a small part of the tobacco smoking problem and a minor part of the overall tobacco problem, a major problem being bidi smoking, and the oral use of smokeless tobacco products. Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. However, it is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence.[2]

Lung cancer is considered a leading cause of deaths in developed countries and is rising at an alarming rate in the developing countries as well.[3] There is an overwhelming body of evidence of increased cancer risk in cigarette smokers. Globally, smoking-related diseases kill an estimated four million people every year. This number is predicted to rise to as taggering 10 million a year over the next two decades. In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women, in addition to being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.[3],[4] Cigarette smoking is the most common method of tobacco consumption in India. Almost 30% of the Indian population older than 15 years use some form of tobacco, with males.

Preferring smoked tobacco rather than smokeless tobacco,[5] even though every form of tobacco such as cigarettes, cigars, snuff, and chewing tobacco contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and is readily absorbed in to the bloodstream? Studies suggest that additional compounds in tobacco smoke such as acetaldehyde can be a cause for addiction to tobacco.[6],[7]

Studies on the prevalence and risk factors among school-going children are important. They provide data on the current trends of tobacco use among this vulnerable group. They also help to identify the risk factors and provide valuable data in policy planning. The prevention of tobacco use in this population is of paramount importance to prevent future consequences. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of adolescent tobacco use among high school boys.

 Methods



An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out during the period of October 2017 to March 2018 among high school boys (8th, 9th, and 10th class) from both government and private schools of Turkapally village.

Considering the prevalence of tobacco use among high school boys as 12.2% based on the findings from the previous study[8] with 95% confidence interval and absolute precision as 5%, sample size came out to be 165. However, we could cover 532 high school boys in the present study.

The list of all high schools (having 8th, 9th, and 10th classes) in Turkapally was obtained from District Education Officer (DEO) Medak. Schools were selected from the school list by using the simple random sampling technique.

All the boys students from the 8th, 9th, and 10th class belonging to selected schools who were present at the time of data collection were included in the study accounting for 532 students. Girls were not included as few schools were only boy's high schools.

Permission from DEO, Medak District was obtained. We also took the permission from the principals of the selected schools. Institution Ethics Committee permission was taken. Informed assent was obtained from school children. Health education was imparted at the end of the study.

Data collection

Data were collected using predesigned semistructured questionnaire on sociodemographic variables and knowledge, attitude, and practices on tobacco products. Before a school was taken for the study, the purpose of the study was explained to all the participants. Sampled school was visited on a date given by school authority.

Data analysis

The data were entered into the computer (Microsoft Office, Excel) 2007 and analyzed using proportions. Preliminary descriptive analysis was used to assess the distribution of responses of all the study variables, and the association between dependent and explanatory variables was assessed using the χ2 test (Chi-square test). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 for the study.

 Results



[Table 1] shows the distribution as per the sociodemographic variables. Majority (35.5%) were of 12 years of age and 38.3% were from VIII standard. 80.3% belonged to the nuclear family. 34.5% of the fathers of the children were educated up to higher secondary level. 40.6% belonged to social Class III. Majority (60.7%) were from private schools.{Table 1}

[Table 2] shows the distribution as per knowledge on various forms of tobacco products. Among smoke forms of tobacco products, most commonly known as bidi and cigarette by 97.2% of boys followed by chuttah by 90.8% of the boys. Among the smokeless forms of tobacco products, most commonly known product was pan masala by 81.6% of the boys followed by gutkha by 78.4% of the boys.{Table 2}

[Table 3] shows the prevalence of tobacco use among boys of high school children in the present study. It was 7.7%{Table 3}

[Table 4] shows the distribution as per the knowledge on tobacco consumption. 73.1% were aware about the hazards of tobacco use. 53.2% were aware about the tobacco available or sold around school. 92.5% said that they got information related to tobacco and its hazards from the electronic media.{Table 4}

[Table 5] shows the distribution as per practices on tobacco consumption. 41 out of 532 (7.7%) children were found to use the tobacco in some or the other form. Among them cigarette or Bidi was the most common form used (90.2%). 63.4% told that they started using tobacco out of curiosity. 46.3% had duration of tobacco use for more than 6 months. 53.7% were using it for more than a week. 63.4% never thought that they will quit tobacco. 56% were borrowing from someone.{Table 5}

[Table 6] shows risk factors of tobacco use among high school children. Prevalence of tobacco use was 61% in the age group of 14–16 years which was significantly more compared to the age group of 11–13 years (P < 0.05). Prevalence was significantly more in children studying in government schools compared to private schools (P < 0.05). As the education class increased from VIII to X, the prevalence of tobacco use increased significantly (P < 0.05). It was significantly more in joint family compared to children belonging to nuclear family. Father's education and social class were not found to be significant risk factors for tobacco use.{Table 6}

 Discussion



Majority (35.5%) were of 12 years of age and 38.3% were from VIII standard. 80.3% belonged to the nuclear family. 34.5% of the fathers of the children were educated up to higher secondary level. 40.6% belonged to social Class III. Majority (60.7%) were from private schools. Among smoke forms of tobacco products, most commonly known is bidi and cigarette by 97.2% of boys followed by chuttah by 90.8% of the boys. Among the smokeless forms of tobacco products, most commonly known product was pan masala by 81.6% of the boys followed by gutkha by 78.4% of the boys. The prevalence of tobacco use among boys of high school children in the present study was 7.7%. 73.1% were aware about the hazards of tobacco use. 53.2% were aware about the Tobacco available or sold around school. 92.5% said that they got information related to tobacco and its hazards from electronic media. 41 out of 532 (7.7%) children were found to use the tobacco in some or the other form. Among them cigarette or Bidi was the most common form used (90.2%). 63.4% told that they started using tobacco out of curiosity. 46.3% had duration of tobacco use for more than 6 months. 53.7% were using it for more than a week. 63.4% never thought that they will quit tobacco. 56% were borrowing from someone. The prevalence of tobacco use was 61% in the age group of 14–16 years which was significantly more compared to the age group of 11–13 years (P < 0.05). The prevalence was significantly more in children studying in government schools as compared to private schools (P < 0.05). As the education class increased from VIII to X, the prevalence of tobacco use increased significantly (P < 0.05). It was significantly more in joint family compared to children belonging to nuclear family. Father's education and social class were not found to be significant risk factors for tobacco use.

Narain et al.[8] found that the prevalence of tobacco use in their study was 11.2% which is more compared to the present study. They found that the prevalence of tobacco use was more from the private schools compared to government schools which is in contradiction to the present study

Verma et al.[9] found that the tobacco use prevalence was 16.4% in which males constituted 89%. Smokeless tobacco use was more than smoke form and Gutka use was more common. Surprisingly, the average age of beginning of the tobacco use was 9.57 ± 1.13 year. Peer pressure was the most common motivating factor for tobacco use. We found a lesser prevalence of tobacco use in our study.

Kurupath and Sureka[10] found that the prevalence of tobacco use significantly more in children coming from lower social classes compared to children coming from middle social classes. However, we did not find any significant differences in the tobacco use across the social classes.

Singh and Gupta[11] in their study found that the tobacco use prevalence was only 2.1% among boys which is very low compared to the present study finding of 7.7%. They also reported that 99.2% of the boys were aware that tobacco was harmful for the health. We also found that 73.1% of the boys in the present study were aware that tobacco was harmful for the health.

Singh and Vijayakumar[12] also reported that 90.2% of the students from their study were aware that tobacco was harmful for the health. We also found that 73.1% of the boys in the present study were aware that tobacco was harmful for the health. In their study also, the prevalence of tobacco use was very low at 2.2% only which is very low compared to the present study of 7.7%.

 Conclusion



The prevalence of tobacco use was high in the present study among high school children. It was associated with increasing age, children from government schools and children from joint family.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

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